The demographic changes of recent decades, with the arrival of a significant number of people from geographical areas such as Latin America, Eastern Europe or Africa (especially the Maghreb), have turned our country into a multicultural society. Although in recent years, as a result of the economic crisis, there has been a decrease in the foreign population, in 2015 the number of people born outside Spain living in our country is, according to official data, 4.729644, which it accounts for 10.14% of the total population.

In this context, the integration of migrants within Spanish society and the achievement of full citizenship, in the sense of enjoying rights and access to public services under conditions of equality, constitute one of the great challenges to which Spanish society faces. The importance of this challenge is reflected in the EU’s Horizon 2020 Program, as well as in the Spanish Science and Technology Strategy 2013-2020 and in the State Plan for Scientific, Technical and Innovation Research 2013-2016. Thus, for example, Challenge 6, which is defined in the latter plan, refers to “Changes and social innovations”. Within the impact of these changes, the challenge that migratory movements represent for Spanish society stands out. Linked to these movements (although not exclusively, of course) is the challenge of inequality, exclusion and poverty, as well as the impact and evolution of values, cultural, social and territorial identities and, in general, collective dynamics.